We would like to start the operation of our Writing Centre by providing you brief but meaningful and practical guides on preparing a research paper.

Preparing a research paper does not have to necessarily mean that you are a researcher or want to be! But it can definitely mean that you would like to organise your flow of thoughts into an easy-to-follow thread, of which trajectory engages your readers and reviewers. However, engaging is not the only requirement about preparing a research paper. It needs to include a clear and strong argument, a “thesis”, a logical structure and scientifically supported content from the first impression to the last. The first impression is given ultimately by the title, keywords and the abstract of your paper, while the last is given by the future research directions you define as a continuance of your chosen research topic. And in between, a classical research structure involves the introduction, the literature review, the research design and methods, the hypotheses and analysis, the results, and the conclusion. Nevertheless, all these cannot leave any good impression unless you add the proper formatting and referencing styles. We are guiding you through all these steps in the following series, and by the time you feel you have prepared your research, you will be given a Check List to see if really everything is done accurately.

We will issue one or two sections in every week, so you can keep up with your work and schedule, and do not feel overwhelmed. The sections in the first week will determine the framework in which you can carry out the research in the upcoming weeks, namely formatting, structure and referencing.

Hence, we truly believe that the present research guide will help you to prepare a research paper for your higher studies, particularly when it is time to set up your thesis, for scientific conferences and publications, and also for delivering a proper report at job which includes a bunch of information that you have to deal with! It will help you to improve your thinking in an organised way, enhance your critical and analytical skills!


We wish you a good browsing in the series!
Have a great time and see you at the Institute!

Sejla ALMADI, the Editor of Writing Centre


Ps.: The Research Paper Guide has been created along the following references (see Bibliography and Online Sources below). Do not hesitate to browse among them as well! 🙂


Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. 1997. Writing Narrative Literature Reviews. Review of general psychology, 1: 311-320.
Brutus, S., Aguinis, H., & Wassmer, U. 2013. Self-reported limitations and future directions in scholarly reports: Analysis and recommendations. Journal of Management, 39: 48-75.
Cook, K. E., & Murowchick, E. 2014. Do literature review skills transfer from one course to another? Psychology Learning and Teaching, 13: 3-11.
Denscombe, M. 2014. The good research guide: For small-scale social research projects. 5th ed. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Fink, A. 2005. Conducting research literature reviews: From the internet to paper. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fink, A. 2014. Conducting research literature reviews: From the internet to paper. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hart, C. 1998. Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hirano, E. 2009. Research article introductions in English for specific purposes: A comparison between Brazilian, Portuguese, and English. English for Specific Purposes, 28: 240-250.
Jesson, J. 2011. Doing your literature review: Traditional and systematic techniques. London: SAGE.
Kennedy, M. M. 2007. Defining a literature. Educational Researcher, 36: 139-147.
Krathwohl, D. R. 2005. How to prepare a dissertation proposal: Suggestions for students in education and the social and behavioral sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Lunenburg, F. C. 2008. Writing a successful thesis or dissertation: Tips and strategies for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Ng, K. H., & Peh, W.C. 2008. Writing the results. Singapore Medical Journal, 49: 967-968.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Frels, R. 2016. Seven steps to a comprehensive literature review: A multimodal and cultural approach. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. 2006. Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Price, J. H., & Murnan, J. 2004. Research limitations and the necessity of reporting them. American Journal of Health Education, 35: 66-67.
Redman, P. 2011. Good essay writing: A social sciences Guide. 4th ed. London, UK: Sage.
Ridley, D. 2012. The literature review: A step-by-step guide for students. 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
Rocco, T. S., & Plakhotnik, M. S. 2008. Literature reviews, conceptual frameworks, and theoretical frameworks: Terms, functions, and distinctions. Human Resource Development Review, 8: 120-130.
Samraj, B. 2002. Introductions in research articles: Variations across disciplines. English for Specific Purposes, 21: 1–17.
Staiger, D. L. 1966. What today’s students need to know about writing abstracts. International Journal of Business Communication, January: 29-33.
Sutton, A. 2016. Systematic approaches to a successful literature review. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Swales, J., & Feak, C. B. 2004. Academic writing for graduate students: Essential skills and tasks. 2nd edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. 2009. Abstracts and the writing of abstracts. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Topping, K. J. 2009. Peer assessment. Theory into practice, 48: 20-27.
Torracro, R. 2005. Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4: 356-367.

Online Sources

Introduction. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina. Retrieved on 07/02/2018:
Kretchmer, P. 2003. Twelve steps to writing an effective results section. Retrieved on 07/02/2018:
Randolph, J. J. 2009. A guide to writing the dissertation literature review. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evolution, 14. Retrieved on 01.09.2018: Retrieved 07-02-2018
Research Guides. University of Southern California. Retrieved on 01.09.2018.

Taylor, D. The literature review: A few tips on conducting it. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto. Retrieved on 07/02/2018:
The structure, format, content, and style of a journal-style scientific paper. Department of Biology. Bates College. Retrieved on 07/02/2018:
Writing Guides. Colorado State University. Retrieved on 07/02/2018:
Writing Centre. Harvard College Writing Centre. Retrieved on 07/02/2018:


Photo retrieved (04/04/2018):