The abstract is probably the most important section of your research as it summarizes the major aspects of the entire paper and provides the readers with the first impression. The first impression as you have encountered it while reading the upcoming titles in your daily journal or a post on social media, is crucial. Here you can find a brief but meaningful to do list on how to write your abstract to the best first impression while meeting scientific requirements.

An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of max. 300 words the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence. It includes the followings:

  1. State the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) investigated. Be exact, concise and precise on aiming the research, while highlighting the significance and actuality of the research problem.
  2. Name the chosen design and methodology of the study: note the size of the sample, the data collection method and source, the main assumption of the research and its analysis method.
  3. Reveal the major findings or trends found as a result of the analysis, summarize the main interpretations and conclusions.
  4. Highlight the added value: reveal the contributions of the research, even they are theoretical, methodological or practical (how organisations could adapt it).

The abstract of a research paper is written in past tense, without using abbreviations, quotes, figures or tables (or reference to these). It avoids to provide an explanation to definitions found in the paper.


Title & Keywords

The first impression, however, comes along the suitable title, and the abstract usually comes along keywords and JEL Code(s). By following the next steps, you can not only define your keywords but create the most accurate title for your work.

1.  Answer the questions:

  • What is my paper about?
  • What techniques/designs were used?
  • What were the results?

2. Use your answers to list keywords (min. 3)

  • Specific expressions, not necessarily singular words or abbreviations

3. Build a sentence with these keywords

4. Delete all unnecessary words (e.g., study of, investigates) and repetitive words; link the remaining

5. Delete non-essential information and reword: Title


JEL Code

The JEL Code classifies your paper into specific categories so that it can be found more easily in search engines and online libraries. You should provide up to 3 JEL Codeto your paper. If you do not have any code starting with the letter F, your work is not involved in the field of International Economics. Here you can check the general categories as a starting point.

JEL Codes General Categories
A General Economics and Teaching
B History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
C Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
D Microeconomics
E Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
F International Economics
G Financial Economics
H Public Economics
I Health, Education, and Welfare
J Labor and Demographic Economics
K Law and Economics
L Industrial Organization
M Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics



Az absztrakt tömören magyar nyelven

A tudományos absztrakt főbb tulajdonságai:

  • max. 300 szó
  • múlt időben íródott
  • egy bekezdés
  • meghatározza: a kutatás célját, módszertanát (adatgyűjtés és elemzési módszer), eredményeit (a kutatás típusának függvényében lehetőleg azok érvényességét, megbízhatóságát, objektivitását, általánosíthatóságát is), jelentőségét/aktualitását/hozzáadott értékét
  • nem tartalmaz idézetet, ábrát, táblázatot vagy ezekre való utalást
  • nem tartalmaz rövidítést
  • nem tartalmaz fogalommagyarázatot

Editor A.S., 2018
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